Doktorsvörn Margrétar Valdimarsdóttur

Margrét Valdimarsdóttir lektor í lögreglufræði við Háskólann á Akureyri varði doktorsritgerð sína í afbrotafræði.
Doktorsvörn Margrétar Valdimarsdóttur

Þriðjudaginn 28. apríl varði Margrét Valdimarsdóttir, lektor í lögreglufræði við Háskólann á Akureyri, doktorsritgerð sína í afbrotafræði (e. criminology and criminal justice) við Borgarháskólann í New York (e. City University of New York). Titill ritgerðarinnar er: Examining the contextual effects of racial profiling, and the long-term consequences of punitive interventions: Testing labeling theory with the National logitudinal study of adolescent to adult health data.

Leiðbeinandi verkefnisins var dr. Amy Adamczyk, prófessor í félagsfræði við Borgarháskólann í New York. Í nefndinni voru einnig dr. Joshua Freilich, prófessor í afbrotafræði, og dr. Jeremy Porter, prófessor í félagsfræði, báðir við Borgarháskólann í New York. Utanaðkomandi nefndaraðilar (e. outside readers) voru dr. Jón Gunnar Bernburg, prófessor í félagsfræði við Háskóla Íslands, og dr. Chongmin Na, lektor í afbrotafræði við John Jay College of Criminal Justice.

Ágrip af rannsókn á ensku

The overrepresentation of minority youth in the juvenile justice system is well documented but more research has been needed on levels of discrimination, particularly on potential biases in the earliest point of contact such as police decisions to stop and arrest young people. Further, few researches have examined individual and neighborhood characteristics simultaneously which has limited the understanding of citizens’ experiences with the police. Focusing on potential biases in the juvenile justice system is important as recent research indicate that most types of interventions have diverse negative consequences for the lives of young people, such as increasing the probability of crime in adulthood.

The current study builds on and addresses some of the limitations of previous research and uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to test several hypotheses related to the probability of having been stopped or arrested by the police in youth, and the long-term impact of punitive interventions by the police and school authorities.

Results generated from the multilevel analyses fail to show that racial and ethnic minorities are more likely than White youth to be stopped by the police. Independent of differences in behavior, Black youth are, however, more likely to be arrested than White adolescents. There is no significant difference between the probability of police stops or arrest for Hispanic and White youth. The probability of arrest also increases with increased concentrated disadvantage (concentrated poverty, a high proportion of single-parent households and a high proportion of residents without a high school diploma).
Interventions in adolescence (being arrested or suspended/expelled from high school) do not decrease subsequent crime, but instead lead to more crime in adulthood. The findings indicate that this is partly because these interventions have a negative impact on adult SES, particularly interventions by school authorities. The current study also indicates that Black youth and young women are more vulnerable to the negative consequences of interventions than other groups.